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The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, 10/E
作者 Vincent R. Ruggiero
出版社 Longman
ISBN 9780205119387
分類 Philosophy > Logic
價格 HK$321.00
 
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Accessible and engaging, this unique text offers concrete, practice strategies for critical and creative thinking and includes many opportunities for practicing these fundamental skills.

The Art of Thinking introduces students to the principles and techniques of critical thinking, taking them step-by-step through the problem-solving process. Emphasizing creative and active thought processes, the author asserts that good thinking and problem-solving is based on learnable strategies. The book's four parts, “Be Aware,” “Be Creative,” “Be Critical,” and “Communicate Your Ideas,” present students with a process for solving problems and resolving controversial issues. Discussions of how to evaluate ideas and how to question long-held assumptions or biases help students look at concepts critically. This text can be used in freshman experience courses, freshman composition courses, and a wide array of other courses where instructors want to enhance students' critical thinking skills.


To the Instructor

PART I: Be Aware

1 Developing Your Thinking: An Overview

What Is Thinking?

The Importance of Thinking

Brain and Mind at Work

Good Thinking Is a Habit

The Structure of This Book

Getting the Most from Your Efforts

Using Feelings to Advantage

Learning to Concentrate

Coping with Frustration

Making Discussion Meaningful

Preliminary Thinking Strategies

2 Establish a Foundation

Free Will versus Determinism

What Is Truth?

What Is Knowing?

Ways of Knowing

The Problem of Remembering

What Are Opinions

Understanding Cause and Effect

Debating Moral Questions

The Basis of Moral Judgment

Dealing with Dilemmas

3 Broaden Your Perspective

Becoming an Individual

Habits That Hinder Thinking

Overcoming Bad Habits

4 Be a Critical Reader, Listener, and Viewer

Critical Evaluation Defined

Making Important Distinctions

A Strategy for Critical Reading

A Sample Evaluation and Judgment

A Strategy for Critical Listening

A Strategy for Critical Viewing

PART II: Be Creative

5 The Creative Process

Key Facts About Creativity

Characteristics of Creative People

Applying Creativity to Problems and Issues

Stages in the Creative Process

6 Search for Challenges

The Importance of Curiosity

How Curiosity Is Lost

Regaining Your Curiosity

Six Helpful Techniques

7 Express the Problem or Issue

Distinguishing Problems from Issues

Expressing Problems

Expressing Issues

When Problems Become Issues

Guidelines for Expressing Problems and Issues

Benefits of Careful Expression

A Sample Problem

A Sample Issue

8 Investigate the Problem or Issue

What to Look For

Using the Library

Using the Internet

Maintaining a Questioning Perspective

Managing an Interview

Avoiding Plagiarism

Conducting Your Own Research

Keeping Creativity Alive

9 Produce Ideas

Stimulating Your Imagination

Aiming for Originality

Withholding Judgment

Overcoming Obstacles

How Insight Occurs

A Sample Problem

A Sample Issue

PART III: Be Critical

10 The Role of Criticism

Why Criticism Is Necessary

Focus on Your Ideas

Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking

Applying Curiosity

Avoiding Assumptions

Refining Your Solutions to Problems

A Sample Problem

Refining Your Positions on Issues

A Sample Issue

11 Refine Your Solution to the Problem

Three Steps in Refining

Two Sample Problems

12 Evaluate Your Argument on the Issue

Errors Affecting Truth

Errors Affecting Validity

A Special Problem: The Hidden Premise

Recognizing Complex Arguments

Steps in Evaluating an Argument

The Case of Parents Protesting TV

The Case of the Mentally Impaired Girls

13 Refine Your Resolution of the Issue

Step 1: Deciding What Action Should Be Taken

Step 2: Recognizing and Overcoming Difficulties

Should Children Pledge Allegiance?

Should the Miranda Rule Be Abolished?

PART IV: Communicate Your Ideas

14 Persuading Others

Understanding Why People Reject Ideas

Knowing Your Audience

Anticipating Your Audience’s Objections

Presenting Your Ideas to Advantage

The Importance of Timing

15 Writing and Speaking Effectively

Characteristics of Effective Writing

A Step-by-Step Approach to Composition

Developing a Readable Style

A Sample Composition

The Challenge of Effective Speaking

Types of Speeches

Organizing Your Material

Sample Outline and Speech

Practicing the Delivery

Solutions to Sample Problems

Notes

Index


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